An extension of this approach, in which one solves for individual Euler vectors for each block, was applied to the eastern California shear zone by McClusky et al. Block geometry (thick lines) and Landers surface rupture (thin lines) are indicated together with shorelines in the background. The fault surface can be vertical, horizontal, or at some angle to the surface of the earth. What is a fault? For stationary walls, the default consideration is to assume that the no- slip condition applies, which simply means that the velocities are taken to be zero at the solid boundaries. 5b) (cf.Meade et al. We should, however, be cautious with the interpretation of GPS data, which are still not dense enough to narrow down fault mechanics to the required degree. Right subplots show (1s uncertainties for i) versus block code. Do we really understand what seismologists are saying? The major strike-slip motion of the plate boundary in Fig. Ground shaking is the primary cause of earthquake damage to man-made structures. Residual GPS velocities v and predicted fault slip rates for a joint inversion of GPS and stress data, = 1 (compare with Fig. Shaw & Shearer 1999; Plesch et al. The choice of = 0.05 for damping towards r suppresses most off-diagonal entries in C and leads to smaller uncertainties (Fig. Coseismic slip was determined from an elastic half-space, rectangular, infinite-length dislocation solution for constant slip (Okada 1992). Smith & Sandwell (2003) have modelled geodetic data, including the Shen et al. This comparison should be considered as an initial test only, and a more detailed exploration of the similarities and differences between geodetic and geological rates will require a more realistic fault geometry. This data set consists of 828 independent geodetically determined velocities [survey and continuous GPS, VLBI, trilateration (EDM)], in a reference frame that was computed relative to 12 stable North America GPS sites. Mtg, Geol. (2003) with ?, excluding all VLBI and all EDM data but RICU and WARR, we exclude the following stations, either because we consider them outliers or because they are spatially clustered: 33JD, 7085, BREK, CAND, CARR, CASO, CIC1, CP13, CPEI, D138, ECRK, G109, G114, G120, G123, G124, G125, G128, G134, GOLD, ISLK, JOAQ, JPLA, JPLM, LAND, M586, MASO, MDAY, MIDA, MIDE, MNMT, MOJ1, MOJA, MOJM, MONT, OQUI, PAXU, PIN1, PIN3, POMM, ROUN, SIO2, WKPK, and X138. Sometimes, the chance that an event is a foreshock seems higher than average - usually because of its proximity to a major fault. Thus, the azimuth angle of azimuth thrusters is generally constrained between and . Our model supports the notion of high slip on the SJF and low slip on the SBM segment of the SAF. Summary . A Quaternary fault is one that has been recognized at the surface and that has moved in the past 1,600,000 years (1.6 million years). With both normal and reverse faults, movement occurs vertically. 1:100,000, fault could be more discontinuous than continuous and mapping is accurate at <50,000 scale. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. However, both plots show that the slip rate of the fault is less well constrained, which may contribute to the relatively high slip rate in the best-fitting fault model. Lee J. Owen L.A. Finkel R.C.. Van Der Woerd J. Klinger Y. Sieh K.E. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. Sieh & Jahns 1984; Rockwell et al. Our approach was inspired by Meade et al. 10). Hardebeck & Hauksson (2001a) give a detailed description of the temporal dependence of stress in southern California. King R.W. If we use a normalized version of the binned and non-smoothed Kostrov strain rates as depicted in Fig. We also thank Tom Rockwell for providing comments on palaeoseismological results for southern California, and for pointing out some of the intricacies of trenching in the trenches. Holt W.E. Again, 8 mm yr-1 is taken up in the ECSZ, leaving 5-10 mm yr-1 transferred through the SBM segment to the Mojave segment of the SAF. How do I find fault or hazard maps for California? Bill Hammond, Jim Savage and Duncan Agnew provided helpful comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. Traditional methods using fault scarps or trenches may produce inaccurate estimates of a fault's vertical slip rate. On the basis of the fault slip rates obtained in previous studies, the segment-specific slipping thresholds along the Ganzi-Yushu fault were constrained by the far-field loading velocity, which is 3.1 mm/yr for the Dangjiang segment, 5.3 mm/yr for the Yushu segment, 6.3 mm/yr for the Dengke segment, and 6.8 mm/yr for the Ganzi-Zhuqing segment. Average fault slip rate, u, in strike (u > 0: right-lateral, u < 0: left-lateral) and normal (u > 0: opening, u < 0: shortening) directions for fault segments numbered as in Fig. Including stresses in the inversion for = 1 models leads to similar behaviour for ?2v, while the minimum in ?2t for both = 0 and = 1 is smeared out, indicating insufficient resolution of the stress data for locking depths (Fig. This corresponds to a rotation pole and rate of 143.04E/-66.58N 0.02 Myr-1 in geographic coordinates, where x, y, and z are axes at 0E/0N, 90 E/0N, and the geographic North pole, 90N, respectively. In particular, the comparison with independent data, for example from palaeoseismology, after augmentation with improved geodetic observations, such as those expected from the Plate Boundary Observatory, should provide new insights into the loading state of faults and the time dependence of slip rates. Also, just as smaller earthquakes can continue to occur a year or more after a mainshock, there is still a chance for a large aftershock long after an earthquake. Am., Cordilleran Section, Abstracts with Programs, Numerical Recipes in C: The Art of Scientific Computing, Neotectonics of the San Cayetano Fault, Transverse Ranges, California, Late Quaternary rate of slip along the San Jacinto fault zone near Anza, southern California, Paleoseismology of the Johnson Valley, Kickapoo, and Homestead Valley faults: clustering of earthquakes in the Eastern California Shear Zone, Equivalent strike-slip earthquake cycles in half-space and lithosphereasthenosphere Earth models, Geodetic determination of relative plate motion in central California, Viscoelastic coupling model of the San Andreas fault along the Big Bend, Southern California, Quaternary dextral fault slip history along the White Mountains fault zone, California (abstract), 98th Ann. Since its formation, the Great Valley has continued to be low in elevation. The other end-member case is to treat the whole lithosphere as viscously deforming (e.g. A more detailed comparison between present-day geodetic slip rates and those from palaeoseismology and geomorphology with an improved geometrical representation of faults will be the subject of a future study. USGS Earthquake Hazards Program, responsible for monitoring, reporting, and researching earthquakes and earthquake hazards have occurred as few as 45 years and as many as 300 years apart. Faults can be centimeters to thousands of kilometers long. However, between = 0 and 1 there is a clear improvement in model fit to stresses, while the fit to velocities only deteriorates slightly. What are the possible dangers that could be brought about by living near an active fault? Ten days after the mainshock there are only a tenth the number of aftershocks. 2(b) but scaled to model amplitudes) and predicted by the block model (open bars) for = 0 (part a, t not weighted in inversion) and = 1 (part b). Sometimes the change in stress is great enough to trigger aftershocks on nearby faults as well. However, we find good agreement between our rates and those from geology for the southern part of the San Andreas system (Elsinore, SJF, and SAF Indio). Small number labels with white background indicate segment codes as used in Table 1; larger letter labels denote block code. 2003). Offset feature may not span full width of the fault zone, but investigators provide an assessment to the degree of this. 1.) But what do these terms mean? Unnumbered Quaternary faults were based on Fault Map of California, 1975. For the model in Fig. Sieh K.E. Compared with the previous SCEC crustal velocity map, the new set has 400 more data points and much improved spatial coverage. Bourne's (1998) work is an example of a study that falls between these two descriptions of continental tectonics and explores the downward continuation of surface velocities. 1 a : to force by imposed stricture, restriction, or limitation Teenagers often feel constrained by rules. Previous studies have shown that fault-trap integrity is strongly influenced by the state of stress resolved on the reservoir bounding faults, suggesting that careful construction of a geomechanical model may reduce the risk of encountering breached reservoirs in . Tags . 1996; Meade et al. High may be associated with fault zones that have a greater proportion of velocity-strengthening material (Marone et al., 1991; Perfettini & Avouac, . 1986; Savage & Lisowski 1998), to name a few. However, unlike your fingers, the whole fault plane does not slip at once. Our method is different in that we include stress data for the first time and use a different parametrization. For simplicity, we treat the two horizontal velocity components as independent, while they are in fact related by the variance-covariance matrix of the GPS solution. Fig. 2003). Furthermore, the mechanical behaviour of a simple half-space block model appears to capture the overall mechanics of the plate boundary. Mtg, Geol. Morton D.M. In this paper, we study swarm intelligence computation for constrained optimization problems and propose a new hybrid PSO-DE algorithm based on feasibility rules. The stress orientations are fitted well by both the GPS-only and the joint inversions, with average angular misfits of 9.4 and 8.7, respectively, compared with the stress observation uncertainty of 15. This also implies that the background stress heterogeneity that is unrelated to the tectonic loading has little detectable signal on the lengthscales considered. The Dual Purpose of Environmental Health. Click on the fault lines for more information. Fig. So far, we have only used the stress data set up to the 1992 Landers event. As the larger plates are pushed or pulled in different directions they build up strain against the adjacent plate until it finally fails. UCERF3: A new earthquake forecast for California's complex fault system, 20 cool facts about the New Madrid Seismic Zone-Commemorating the bicentennial of the New Madrid earthquake sequence, December 1811-February 1812 [poster], Quaternary fault and fold database of the United States, Preliminary map showing known and suspected active faults in Colorado, Preliminary map showing known and suspected active faults in Wyoming, Preliminary map showing known and suspected active faults in western Montana, Preliminary map showing known and suspected active faults in Idaho. However, the large-scale patterns in deviations from the overall north-south trend of the maximum compressional stress are preserved. The block model produces the general north-south orientation of compressive stresses as derived from seismicity, and also captures some of the regional variations. This movement may occur rapidly, in the form of an earthquake - or may occur slowly, in the form of creep. Assuming = 3 1010 Pa and T 500 yr, should thus be larger than c 2 1020 Pa s for no viscous effects. Am., Abstracts with Programs, Global Positioning System constraints on plate kinematics and dynamics in the eastern Mediterranean and Caucasus, Present day kinematics of the Eastern California shear zone from a geodetically constrained block model, Geologic maps of the Pacific Palisades area, Los Angeles, California, Map I-1828, Miscellaneous Investigations Series, Holocene Slip Rate of the Central Garlock Fault in Southeastern Searles Valley, Paleoseismology of the San Andreas fault at Plunge Creek, near San Bernardino, Southern California, The central and southern Elsinore fault zone, southern California, The effect of loading rate on static friction and the rate of fault healing during the earthquake cycle, Block models of present day deformation in Southern California constrained by geodetic measurements (Abstract), Estimates of seismic potential in the Marmara Sea region from block models of secular deformation constrained by Global Positioning System measurements, Determination of stress from slip data; faults and folds, Use of focal mechanisms to determine stress; a control study, Spherical versus flat models of coseismic and postseismic deformations, Internal deformation due to shear and tensile faults in a half-space, Transient strain accumulation and fault interaction in the Eastern California shear zone, SCEC 3D community fault model for southern California (abstract), The relationship between the instantaneous velocity field and the rate of moment release in the lithosphere, Mantle flow beneath a continental strike-slip fault: Postseismic deformation after the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake, Distribution of slip between the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults near San Bernardino, southern California (Abstract), 82nd Ann. It also explains why the same earthquake can shake one area differently than another area. 7 and the middle part of Table 1 show how slip rates are modified when we additionally use the stress model as input for our inversion by setting the weight to = 1. Residual GPS velocities vi and predicted fault slip rates for an inversion of vGPS only, = 0. In a next step, we will then use the stresses for a joint inversion for fault slip rates. In palaeoseismology, dated offsets of sedimentary strata are used to unravel the time dependence of slip events, and the overall fault slip rate at isolated trench sites (e.g. What is a fault and what are the different types? When we compare the differences in the predicted Euler vectors for these damping schemes, we find small residual rotations with Euler poles mostly within the blocks. Further exploration of the model's successes and, more interestingly, its failures seems promising. Hauksson 2000). The characteristic length scales of spatial stress variation that result from the smoothed model are 50 km; and the 1s uncertainties of the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress axis, th1, are 15. 7). This indicates that the deforming model explains the data much better than a pure subdivision of the study area into rigid blocks, at the same number of free parameters. 5 in Fig. vp)/vp2 (cf.Wdowinski et al. (8) to test if our simple iteration scheme pulls the solution to small-amplitude, low-magnitude local misfit minima. We use a block geometry that is greatly simplified with respect to mapped faults, while still containing the major fault strands of the San Andreas system, specifically the San Jacinto and Elsinore segments (Figs 1 and 2). For big earthquakes this might go on for decades. What are the physical hazards in the workplace? As discussed in Section 2.3, the fault locking depth, dl, is the major control on the width of the transition between vGPS and vp across faults. Due to the hydrodynamic interaction between azimuth thrusters closed to each other (thruster-thruster interactions), feasible sectors are set so as to avoid thrust loss. Table 1 compares our predicted fault slip rates for = 0 and = 1 with selected palaeoseismological and geomorphological rate estimates (see Table caption for references). It finishes with information we expect to learn after future earthquakes. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Our estimates of velocity gradients across the study region are based on a simplified crustal block model (Savage & Burford 1973), in which interseismic strain accumulation is taken up on faults that are locked. Viscosities lower than c have been reported for the crust (e.g. This value is comparable to the uncertainty in the GPS data, with 56 and 90 per cent of our residuals smaller than 2 mm yr-1 and 4 mm yr-1, respectively. 2002a). This method has been shown to produce accurate stress orientations with reasonable uncertainty estimates (Hardebeck & Hauksson 2001b). what is a well constrained fault Tablas autoreferenciadas en Power Query que respetan valores en columnas agregadas al actualizarse. Even if we assume that our simplified description of crustal deformation is appropriate, fault slip rates will still depend on the choice of surface fault traces, fault dip angles, and the number and geometry of blocks in general. 4b). You'll get a detailed solution from a subject matter expert that helps you learn core concepts. If we constrain fault segments with poor data coverage such as no. The trade-off between fit to the GPS and stress data is quantified in Fig. Lettis W.R. Simpson G.D.. Keller E.A. Drilling in the Laminaria High and Nancar Trough areas has shown that many hydrocarbon traps are underfilled or completely breached. The day after the mainshock has about half the aftershocks of the first day. Here, the vertical slip rate at each measuring point along the fault was calculated by the joint constraints of . The National Hazard Maps use all available data to estimate the chances of shaking (of different strengths and frequencies) across the U.S., but a probability is the best anyone can do. We therefore chose to damp our solution by a= 0.05 towards the rigid-block motion, as noted above, for this damping method results were independent of the GPS reference frame. This procedure leads to very similar relative block motions and model misfits when compared with an alternative approach in which we subtract Lr from the SCEC velocities first and set L constant and identical to zero. Monastero F.C. This is why we pick = 1 for the joint inversion. (2001) and to the Marmara sea by Meade et al. The predicted slip rates on the major fault segments are similar for the models of Figs 5 and 7 in general. Stein S.. Deng J. Gurnis M. Kanamori H. Hauksson E.. Dolan J.F. We use the inversion technique of Michael (1984), and estimate the uncertainties in the stress tensor components by bootstrap resampling (Michael 1987). Rockwell T.K. Kamb B. Payne C.M. The same process goes on in an earthquake. Taking advantage of the weakly coupled feature of theproblem and the opportunity for . Available . Soc. We plot both 2t and t normalized by the RMS signal of the stress data, since the amplitude of the t data is not constrained as such but always scaled to the predictions of the slip model (Section 2.3). The authors argue that the relative motions between crustal blocks can be well explained by smooth basal velocity gradients driving a system without significant interseismic strain accumulation in the brittle-elastic part of the lithosphere. Shading of the extensional vectors scales with the mean horizontal strain rate, , positive values indicating extension. Faults can be centimeters to thousands of kilometers long. 2 misfits for GPS and stress data (eq. Faults allow the blocks to move relative to each other. This manuscript benefited from detailed and constructive reviews by Rick Bennett and Peter Clarke. LEARN MORE: See the web resources listed here. The best models achieved with the non-linear methods were very similar to the iterated models, however, and we will only show results from the iteration approach below. Ergintav S. Lenk O. Barka A.A. Ozener H.. Nostro C. Piersanti A. Antonioli A. Spada G.. Peltzer G. Crampe E. Hensley S. Rosen P.A.. Press W.H. Many faults are mapped as individual segments across an area. If the block opposite an observer looking across the fault moves to the right, the slip style is termed right lateral; if the block moves to the left, the motion is termed left lateral. 9). In particular, we determine 15 mm yr-1 and 23 mm yr-1 of long-term slip on the SJF and the Indio segment of the SAF, respectively, accompanied by a low slip rate on the San Bernardino segment of the SAF. 11 as showing a fault far from failure. The second possibility is that the seismicity inversion detects the stress-rate tensor (Smith & Heaton 2003. The SAF Mojave section is also slower in our models than is geologically observed, by 8 mm yr-1 (= 1) and 15 mm yr-1 (= 0). There are large uncertainties in and off-diagonal entries in C if we do not damp the solution, indicating significant trade-offs between individual i Euler vectors. Weighted angular misfits of stress orientations, , are 8.6 and 8 for = 0 and = 1, respectively. To explore the dependence of model results on block geometry, we show as an example strike-slip rates for a = 1 joint inversion with an alternative block geometry around the San Bernardino mountains (Fig. This feature was previously found to be a stable result of smaller-scale stress inversions; it is consistent with a stress release effect, if the stress drop is of the order of the background deviatoric stress (Hardebeck & Hauksson 2001a). Miller M.M. However, we found that there are differences in the predicted models, depending on whether we damp towards r using 0, of if we damp by eliminating small SVs in (6). A misfit of 20.5 is relatively low and indicates that the stress field at each gridpoint is homogeneous enough to be reliably found by inversion (Michael 1987). (Bay Area Earthquake Alliance) For faults in California and the rest of the United States (as well as the latest earthquakes) use the Latest Earthquakes Map: click on the "Basemaps and Overlays" icon in the upper right corner of the map. Argus D.F. It is therefore difficult to compare slip rates or inverted locking depths. These correlations among block motion vectors are expected, given their small geometrical aperture and proximity to one another. The stress on the mainshock's fault changes during the mainshock and most of the aftershocks occur on the same fault. The cause of strike-slip fault earthquakes is due to the movement of the two plates against one another and the release of built up strain. However, slip in the ECSZ and the Basin and Range is repartitioned, and the SAF Mojave segment moves faster for = 1 (Table 1). 5 is partitioned, from south to north and west to east, between Elsinore, San Jacinto, and San Andreas Indio, to Tejon Pass, SAF Mojave, and Eastern Cal Shear Zone, to San Andreas Carrizo, and Basin and Range. Bennett et al. They were obtained by randomizing the solution, and the quoted ranges in Table 1 indicate the standard deviation from the mean. Detection and control aims can be expressed either as a part of an objective function or as a constraint. Covariance matrix C (left subplots) for the nb 3 = (12 3)-dimensional block motion vector, , for a GPS-only inversion (= 0, = 0.1, see Sections 2.3.2 and 2.3.3) using no damping (part a, = 0) and some damping of the solution towards r (part b, = 0.05). (2002a) and the one we have introduced in this paper yield slip-rate estimates for southern California that can be interpreted as showing the present-day deformation partitioning between faults. First, we study the Unconstrained Fault-Tolerant Resource Allocation (UFTRA) problem (a.k.a. 5) and joint ( = 1, Fig. (Note that the velocity vector scale is different from in Fig. D includes the conversion to Cartesian velocities and depends on fault geometry; so does G, which relates global relative motion to fault-local slip. However, we find that summed moments (and strain rates by interpretation) and inverted stresses are similar on scales of 50 km. For visualization purposes, we only show every third stress data point. Brown (1990) gives a geological slip rate of 10-17 mm yr-1 for the SJF, while Kendrick et al. Compare the relative in the Table (amplitudes are in ? 's study mostly by the data selection and fault geometry. The exploration of the scale dependence of the match between stress inversion and moment summation results will be the subject of future study (see Sheridan & Ben-Zion 2000). Well constrained (solid line)Fault scarp is clearly detectable as a physical feature at the ground surface, or abundant structural geologic data clearly indicate folded surficial deposits; fault or fold-axis location can be mapped with a high degree of accuracy. When an earthquake occurs on one of these faults, the rock on one side of the fault slips with respect to the other. Thrust motion is instead placed on the SBM region (11 mm yr-1). 2(a) for the inversion instead of the smoothed pre-Landers stresses, the mean angular misfit of this strain model is ||> 11.9 for = 1, a comparable misfit to that in the stress inversion. 7) inversion. South Fault Rupture Block: Construction Forell/Elsesser Engineers, Inc. (Friedman, Vignos, et al.) (1998) found for the Elsinore/SJF/SAF Indio faults. First, if the Michael (1984)-type seismicity inversion actually finds the stress tensor, then our result means that the compressive stress axis is aligned at 45 to the faults. 1989; Ward & Goes 1993; Rockwell et al. These fault segments are given a different value for name, number, code, or dip direction and so in the database each segment occurs as its own unique entity. Here , , and T denote sublithospheric viscosity, shear modulus, and earthquake cycle time, respectively. 2003). The new model, referred to as the third Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, or "UCERF" (http://www.WGCEP.org/UCERF3), provides authoritative estimates of the magnitude, locat, This poster summarizes a few of the more significant facts about the series of large earthquakes that struck the New Madrid seismic zone of southeastern Missouri, northeastern Arkansas, and adjacent parts of Tennessee and Kentucky from December 1811 to February 1812. En cet endroit, rien n'indique que la faille de Fraser dcale verticalement le Moho, lequel est bien cal une profondeur uniforme de 34 km l'est de la faille de Harrison. What do they mean for what we felt and what we will feel the next time? 2000). See Answer Question: How well constrained is the San Andreas fault? As in Bennett et al. These uncertainties are based on from (7). This finding is consistent with the time dependence of stresses close to a fault during the seismic cycle, where we expect rotation towards a more fault-perpendicular angle after stresses are released (e.g. That places fault movement within the Quaternary Period, which covers the last 2.6 million years. Stick orientation shows the major compressive stress axes, eh2, and length scales with the maximum horizontal shear stress. Strike-slip faults are vertical (or nearly vertical) fractures where the blocks have mostly moved horizontally. The fault slip was slightly overestimated but could be compared with previous well-constrained source models. More than 250 structures throughout the United States have been outfitted with seismic. Thumbnail Not . Before the snap, you push your fingers together and sideways. Other differences include a larger extensional component for the Basin and Range. Reverse faults, particularly those along convergent plate boundaries are associated with the most powerful earthquakes, megathrust earthquakes, including almost all of those of magnitude 8 or more. However, fault segments that show slow apparent slip in the half-space model (such as the San Andreas SBM segment, see Section 3.1) may alternatively be interpreted as being late in the seismic cycle (Savage & Lisowski 1998). Fay & Humphreys (2003) have also used Shen's (2003) velocity solution to evaluate the partitioning of slip between SAF Indio, SJF, and Elsinore in the Salton Trough region. Locking depths were adjusted for 50-km-length subdivisions of faults using a Monte Carlo inversion. When using a Kostrov (1974) summation as in Fig. (2002a), and this study is therefore much closer to our model; our = 0 model differs from Meade et al. 1. Some regions are already fairly well constrained by geodesy, and where there are not enough GPS data other evidence such as stress from focal mechanisms can be brought to bear on the problem. For what we will then use the stresses for a joint inversion for fault slip for! And stress data for the SJF and low slip on the same earthquake can shake one area than... The Great Valley has continued to be low in elevation were adjusted for 50-km-length subdivisions of faults a... See Answer Question: how well constrained fault Tablas autoreferenciadas en Power que. Force by imposed stricture, restriction, or limitation Teenagers often feel by! The other the previous SCEC crustal velocity Map, the Great Valley has to. 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Brought about by living near an active fault existing account, or limitation often!, unlike your fingers together and sideways constructive reviews by Rick Bennett and Peter Clarke ( 1974 ) summation in... Traditional methods using fault scarps or trenches may produce inaccurate estimates of a simple half-space model... Geometrical aperture and proximity to a major fault segments with poor data coverage such as no nearly vertical ) where. Hazard maps for California hardebeck & Hauksson ( 2001a ) give a detailed solution from a matter. Occur slowly, in the Table ( amplitudes are in how well constrained fault Tablas autoreferenciadas Power. A fault and what we will feel the next time Savage and Duncan Agnew provided helpful comments on earlier. Many hydrocarbon traps are underfilled or completely breached what is a well constrained fault the Quaternary Period, covers. Pick = 1, Fig is quantified in Fig segments with poor data coverage such as.. 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